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¿Qué es SAP?



Pregunta simple y complicada a la vez la que plantea el título, simple porque la mayoría de la gente que trabajó con SAP puede contestarla, complicada porque seguramente a cualquier explicación o definición se le puedan agregar o modificar muchísimos puntos.

El primer punto que podemos hacer notar es que SAP es una empresa, no un producto a diferencia de como la mayoría de la gente suele decir. SAP es una empresa Alemana fundada en 1972 y significa: “Systeme, Anwendungen, Produkte” (Sistemas, Aplicaciones, Productos), hoy por hoy es la organización líder en proveer sistemas integrales para grandes organizaciones a nivel mundial.

El producto estrella de la compañía, al que todos simplemente llaman SAP, es su ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning), pudiendose escuchar como nombre del mismo SAP R/3 o más actualmente SAP ECC (Enterprise Central Components)

Para entender que es lo que SAP le aporta a la organización, necesitamos saber lo que es un ERP, y la definición de este es que es “un sistema integrado de gestión de la organización”. Ahora pongamos esto en claro, un sistema de estas características nos va a permitir administrar practicamente todas las áreas de la organización: Producción, Ventas, Cuentas a Cobrar, Cuentas a Pagar, Contabilidad, Mantenimiento, Compras, Tesorería, Inventarios, Recursos Humanos, y un largo etc.

Todos estos conjuntos de actividades están integrados en el aplicativo y cualquier actividad impacta en la otra automáticamente, de ahí el mote de sistema “integrado”, o muchas veces llamado de “Backoffice”.

Ahora ya sabemos que el producto estrella de SAP es su ERP, y que este es basicamente donde la gran mayoría de los empleados de la organización realizan sus tareas diarias.

Adicionalmente SAP tiene otros productos como ser su CRM (Customer Relationship Management), que se encarga de Administrar las relaciones con los clientes, registrando todos los contactos con los mismos, y muchas veces utilizado para brindar una mejor atención a los mismos contando con toda la información de contacto con el mismo.

También podemos encontrar su Datawarehouse (SAP BW), el SAP SRM (Supplier Relationship Managemente o Administración de relaciones con los proveedores), SAP MDM (Master Data Management), SAP Portal, y muchos otros de los que hablaremos en futuras entradas de este blog.

Ahora este blog trata basicamente de seguridad SAP, por lo que podemos empezar a plantear en donde entra la seguridad en un ambiente de estas características.

Imagínense que en un sistema como el que describimos anteriormente podemos encontrar basicamente toda la información del día a día de una empresa, así como realizar operaciones de compra, venta, movimientos de stock, entre miles de posibilidades. A causa de esto justamente es que la necesidad de implementar restricciones en el acceso y generación de esta información es crítica para cualquier organización que trabaje con SAP. Un empleado con acceso al sistema solo tiene que poder realizar las acciones que le correponden a su “rol” en la organización identificándose unívocamente en el sistema, y quedando registradas sus actividades en el mismo.

Estos temas vamos a tocarlos en profundidad en próximas entradas, por lo pronto para la próxima podemos esperar una explicación de ¿Cómo funciona SAP? con un poco más de detalle.
Más información sobre varias aplicaciones de SAP:
¿Qué es SAP CRM?
¿Qué es SAP BW o SAP BI?
¿Qué es SAP Portal?
¿Qué es SAP SRM?
¿Qué es SAP MDM?
¿Qué es SAP XI o SAP PI?
¿Qué es SAP Solution Manager?


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